The clinical presentation is consistent with a Type II odontoid fracture. All of the listed variables are risk factors for nonunion in Type II odontoid fractures, EXCEPT for age < 40 years.
Koivikko et al looked at risk factors for nonunion in patients with Type II odontoid fractures. They found nonunion correlated with a fracture gap (> 1 mm), posterior displacement (> 5 mm), delayed start of treatment (> 4 days) and further posterior displacement after application of a halo vest (> 2 mm). They concluded that patients presenting with these risk factors are unlikely to achieve bony union by treatment in a halo vest.
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