The Association welcomes submissions for both the Douglas Johnson and Brian Darling Memorial Prizes which deal with any aspect of the Association's scope (French history, politics, culture, society, literature, thought, film since 1789). For 2015, we received a record number of submissions for both prizes, reflecting the outstanding teaching, learning and research conducted in the area of French Studies at universities across the UK. Essay submissions likewise demonstrated the range of areas which come under the Association's remit: we received essays and dissertations examining history, politics, literature and thought, many of which were interdisciplinary and comprised empirical and theoretical approaches. A summary of the broad areas covered by submissions to the 2015 prizes is below:
Late in the 19th century, Paris hosted two major international expositions: the 1889 Universal Exposition , was held to mark the centennial of the French Revolution and featured the new Eiffel Tower; and the 1900 Universal Exposition , which gave Paris the Pont Alexandre III , the Grand Palais , the Petit Palais and the first Paris Métro line.  Paris became the laboratory of Naturalism ( Émile Zola ) and Symbolism ( Charles Baudelaire and Paul Verlaine ), and of Impressionism in art ( Courbet , Manet , Monet , Renoir ).